In my professional environment (university), I often hear and even read two literal and rather awkward translations. I have no definite evidence that they are genuine false friends, but a comparison on Google suggests that the two expressions I regard as correct are used much more often than the others. Moreover, I did not find any dictionaries that would support both versions.
German native speakers often use the phrase
to hold a lecture
because the corresponding German expression is eine Vorlesung halten. However, the correct English expression appears to be (see here)
to give a lecture
Similarly, the phrase
to visit a lecture
(eine Vorlesung besuchen) appears to be incorrect, whereas
to attend a lecture
is widely used and can be found in most dictionaries.
Finally, make sure you do not mix up lecture and course. A lecture refers to a single event, whereas a course is a series of lectures. In German, lecture and course are both translated as Vorlesung, which can cause confusion.